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[...] Each of our actions presents us with its effects, either immediately or after a certain period. Every action has a consequence. It can also take the form of a trace that will influence the next action. For example, if we have behaved kindly to a person, a little of our kindness will affect the way they behave towards the people they meet in turn. It is a continuous process: one action influences another, and so on indefinitely. This is why we must remain vigilant  in any of our actions.  

What options do we have to prevent our actions from producing negative consequences that we may later regret? One possibility is dhyana , which in this context means "reflection". Reflection can take various forms. For example, when faced with an important decision we can imagine doing the opposite of what instinct suggests. Try to imagine the consequences of your action as vividly as possible. It doesn't matter what these consequences are and how you feel about them; the important thing, before making an important decision and putting it into action, give yourself the opportunity to consider the problem with the  open mind and a certain degree of objectivity. In this way of proceeding,  d hyana is careful and quiet consideration or reflection. The aim is to free ourselves from preconceptions and not to take actions that we may later regret or that can cause us other problems ( dukha ).

The  d hyana strengthens self-sufficiency. Yoga makes us independent. We all want to be free, even though many depend on psychologists, gurus, teachers, drugs or whatever. Advice and suggestion  they are useful, but in the end we are the best judges of our actions. Nobody is more interested in us than ourselves. Dhyana helps us find the right way to make decisions and better understand our behavior.

There are so many ways to distance ourselves from our actions, as well as imagining acting exactly the opposite of how we would like. We can also go to listen to a concert, go for a walk or whatever else calms our minds. Meanwhile the mind continues its unconscious work without being subjected to pressure. Dedicating oneself to something else is like thinking about distances a little. We give  to mind the time, albeit short, to consider all aspects of the decision  to take.  Let's get away for a short time and with a little peace of mind, maybe we will decide in the best way. To distance oneself from a situation in order to better observe it from another point of view is called pratipaksa.  The same word indicates the process of considering other possible ways of acting. The time devoted to  d hyana is extremely important. Thanks to reflection, our actions gain in quality.

To avidya (ignorance obscuring the perception of our deep nature) it is closely linked  dukha. It is variously translated as "suffering", "pain", "infirmity", but the best explanation is the feeling of narrowness, of constriction. Dukha  it is a quality of mind that gives us the feeling of being crushed. It shouldn't be seen as physical pain, because  there is no need for any physical pain to feel great  sense of  dukha. The level on who the  dukha works is that of the mind. The  dukha is a state of mind in which we feel limited in our ability to act and understand. Also  if we are not bursting into tears, we feel deep down that something is wrong, we feel painfully limited and restricted.

On the other hand, when we feel lightness and inner openness we are experiencing the opposite of  dukha , a state called sukha. The concept of  dukha is of particular relevance not only in yoga, but in all Indian philosophies. In every moment of a being's life it is present  dukha and we all have the task of eliminating it. This is the purpose of yoga. [...]

TKV Desikachar,  The heart of yoga,  Rome, Ubaldini Editore, 1997

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